Diabetic Retinopathy Bibliography

Incidence, Progression, and Risk Factors

Diabetes Control and Complications Trial Research Group. The effect of intensive     treatment of diabetes on the development and progression of long-term complications in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. N Engl J Med. 1993;329(14):977-986. doi:10.1056/NEJM199309303291401.

Klein R, Klein BE, Moss SE, Cruickshanks KJ. The Wisconsin Epidemiologic Study of diabetic retinopathy, XIV: ten-year incidence and progression of diabetic retinopathy. Arch Ophthalmol. 1994;112(9):1217-1228. doi:10.1001/archopht.1994.01090210105023.

UK Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) Group. Intensive blood-glucose control with sulphonylureas or insulin compared with conventional treatment and risk of complications in patients with type 2 diabetes (UKPDS 33). Lancet. 1998;352(9131):837-853. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(98)07019-6.


Seminal Trials of Laser for DME and Proliferative Retinopathy

Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study Research Group. Photocoagulation for diabetic macular edema: Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study report number 1. Arch Ophthalmol. 1985;103(12):1796-1806. doi:10.1001/archopht.1985.01050120030015.

Diabetic Retinopathy Study Research Group. Indications for photocoagulation treatment of diabetic retinopathy: Diabetic Retinopathy Study report number 14. Int Ophthalmol Clin. 1987;27(4):239-253.

Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study Research Group. Early photocoagulation for diabetic retinopathy: ETDRS report number 9. Ophthalmology. 1991;98(5):766-785. doi:10.1016/S0161-6420(13)38011-7.


Landmark Trials on Intravitreal Bevacizumab Therapy for DME

Rajendram R, Fraser-Bell S, Kaines A, et al. A 2-year prospective randomized controlled trial of intravitreal bevacizumab or laser therapy (BOLT) in the management of diabetic macular edema, 24-month data: report 3. Arch Ophthalmol. 2012;130(8):972-979. doi:10.1001/archophthalmol.2012.393.


Landmark Trials on Intravitreal Ranibizumab Therapy for DME

Nguyen QD, Shah SM, Khwaja AA, et al; READ-2 Study Group. Two-year outcomes of the Ranibizumab for Edema of the mAcula in Diabetes (READ-2) Study [published online September 19, 2010]. Ophthalmology. 2010;117(11):2146-2151. doi:10.1016/j.ophtha.2010.08.016.

Mitchell P, Bandello F, Schmidt-Erfurth U, et al; RESTORE study group. The RESTORE Study: ranibizumab monotherapy or combined with laser versus laser monotherapy for diabetic macular edema. Ophthalmology. 2011;118(4):615-625. doi:10.1016/j.ophtha.2011.01.031.

Elman MJ, Bressler NM, Qin H, et al; Diabetic Retinopathy Clinical Research Network. Expanded 2-year follow-up of ranibizumab plus prompt or deferred laser or triamcinolone plus prompt laser for diabetic macular edema. Ophthalmology. 2011;118(4):609-614. doi:10.1016/j.ophtha.2010.12.033.

Nguyen QD, Brown DM, Marcus DM, et al; RISE and RIDE Research Group. Ranibizumab for diabetic macular edema, results from 2 phase III randomized trials: RISE and RIDE [published online February 11, 2012]. Ophthalmology. 2012;119(4):789-801. doi:10.1016/j.ophtha.2011.12.039.

Elman MJ, Qin H, Aiello LP, et al; Diabetic Retinopathy Clinical Research Network. Intravitreal ranibizumab for diabetic macular edema with prompt versus deferred laser treatment: three-year randomized trial results [published online September 19, 2012]. Ophthalmology. 2012;119(11):2312-2318. doi:10.1016/j.ophtha.2012.08.022.

Schmidt-Erfurth U, Lang GE, Holz FG, et al; RESTORE Extension Study Group. Three-year outcomes of individualized ranibizumab treatment in patients with diabetic macular edema: the RESTORE Extension Study [published online February 1, 2014]. Ophthalmology. 2014;121(5):1045-1053. doi:10.1016/j.ophtha.2013.11.041.


Landmark Trials on Intravitreal Aflibercept Therapy for DME

Do DV, Nguyen QD, Boyer D, et al; DA VINCI Study Group. One-year outcomes of the DA VINCI Study of VEGF trap-eye in eyes with diabetic macular edema [published online April 24, 2012]. Ophthalmology. 2012;119(8):1658-1665. doi:10.1016/j.ophtha.2012.02.010.

Korobelnik JF, Do DV, Schmidt-Erfurth U, et al. Intravitreal aflibercept for diabetic macular edema [published online July 8, 2014]. Ophthalmology. 2014;121(11):2247-2254. doi:10.1016/j.ophtha.2014.05.006.

Heier JS, Korobelnik JF, Brown DM, et al. Intravitreal aflibercept for diabetic macular edema: 148-week results from the VISTA and VIVID Studies [published online September 17, 2016]. Ophthalmology 2016;123(11):2376-2385. doi:10.1016/j.ophtha.2016.07.032.


Trials Comparing Intravitreal Bevacizumab, Ranibizumab, Aflibercept Therapy for DME

Diabetic Retinopathy Clinical Research Network. Aflibercept, bevacizumab, or ranibizumab for diabetic macular edema [published online February 18, 2015]. N Engl J Med. 2015;372:1193-1203. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1414264.

Wells JA, Glassman AR, Ayala AR, et al. Aflibercept, bevacizumab, or ranibizumab for diabetic macular edema: two-year results form a comparative effectiveness randomized clinical trial [published online February 27, 2016]. Ophthalmology. 2016;123(6):1351-1359.  doi:10.1016/j.ophtha.2016.02.022. 


Landmark Trials on Intravitreal Steroid Therapy for DME

Boyer DS, Yoon YH, Belfort R Jr, et al; Ozurdex MEAD Study Group. Three-year, randomized, sham-controlled trial of dexamethasone intravitreal implant in patients with diabetic macular edema [published online June 4, 2014]. Ophthalmology. 2014;121(10):1904-1914. doi:10.1016/j.ophtha.2014.04.024 .

Elman MJ, Bressler NM, Qin H, et al. Expanded 2-year follow-up of ranibizumab plus prompt or deferred laser or triamcinolone plus prompt laser for diabetic macular edema. Ophthalmology. 2011;118(4):609-614.

Campochiaro PA, Brown DM, Pearson A, et al. Sustained delivery fluocinolone acetonide vitreous inserts provide benefit for at least 3 years in patients with diabetic macular edema (FAME Study) [published online June 21, 2012]. Ophthalmology. 2012;119(10):2125-2132. doi:10.1016/j.ophtha.2012.04.030.

Gillies MC, Lim LL, Campain A, et al. A randomized clinical trial of intravitreal bevacizumab versus intravitreal dexamethasone for diabetic macular edema: the BEVORDEX Study [published online August 22, 2014]. Ophthalmology. 2014;121(12):2473-2481. doi:10.1016/j.ophtha.2014.07.002.


Intravitreal Ranibizumab Versus Laser for PDR

Gross JG, Glassman AR, Jampol LM, et al; Writing Committee for the Diabetic Retinopathy Clinical Research Network. Panretinal photocoagulation vs intravitreal ranibizumab for proliferative diabetic retinopathy: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA. 2015;314(20):2137-2146. doi:10.1001/jama.2015.15217/.


Vitrectomy in Diabetic Retinopathy

Diabetic Retinopathy Vitrectomy Study Research Group. Early vitrectomy for severe vitreous hemorrhage in diabetic retinopathy, two-year results of a randomized trial: Diabetic Retinopathy Vitrectomy Study report 2. Arch Ophthalmol. 1985;103(11):1644-1652. doi:10.1001/archopht.1985.01050110038020.

Diabetic Retinopathy Vitrectomy Study Research Group. Early vitrectomy for severe proliferative diabetic retinopathy in eyes with useful vision: clinical application of results of a randomized trial—Diabetic Retinopathy Vitrectomy Study report 4. Ophthalmology. 1988;95(10):1321-1334. doi:10.1016/S0161-6420(88)33014-9.

Diabetic Retinopathy Vitrectomy Study Research Group. Early vitrectomy for severe proliferative diabetic retinopathy in eyes with useful vision: results of a randomized trial—Diabetic Retinopathy Vitrectomy Study report 3. Ophthalmology. 1988;95(10):1307-1320. doi:10.1016/S0161-6420(88)33015-0.

Diabetic Retinopathy Vitrectomy Study Research Group. Early vitrectomy for severe vitreous hemorrhage in diabetic retinopathy, four-year results of a randomized trial: Diabetic Retinopathy Vitrectomy Study report 5. Arch Ophthalmol. 1990;108(7):958-964. doi:10.1001/archopht.1990.01070090060040.


Updated February 2018

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